SSL/TLS Session-Aware User Authentication Using a GAA Bootstrapped Key
Most SSL/TLS-based electronic commerce (e-commerce) applications (including Internet banking) are vulnerable to man in the middle attacks. Such attacks arise since users are often unable to authenticate a server effectively, and because user authentication methods are typically decoupled from SSL/TLS session establishment. Cryptographically binding the two authentication procedures together, a process referred to here as SSL/TLS Session-Aware user authentication (TLS-SA), is a lightweight and effective countermeasure. In this paper the authors propose a means of implementing TLS-SA using a GAA bootstrapped key. The scheme employs a GAA-enabled user device with a display and an input capability (e.g. a 3G mobile phone) and a GAA-aware server.