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CMOS scaling has long been a source of dramatic performance gains. However, semiconductor feature size reduction has resulted in increasing levels of operating temperatures and current densities. Given that most wearout mechanisms are highly dependent on these parameters, significantly higher failure rates are projected for future technology generations. Consequently, fault tolerance, which has traditionally been a subject of interest for high-end server markets, is now getting emphasis in the mainstream computing systems space. The popular solution for this has been the use of redundancy at a coarse granularity, such as dual/triple modular redundancy.
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