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The authors present a unified explanation of the internationalization strategies of major Mobile Network Operators (MNOs). They have developed a framework that analyzes the strategies of major international MNOs in terms of the relationship between their degree of involvement in international business operations and the degree of equity participation. The results show a positive association between these two dimensions as expected, but they also reveal some exceptional cases in which certain MNOs are actively involved in the business operations of other foreign MNOs, even with minor (or zero) equity investments.
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