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Schemas, and more generally metadata specifying structural and semantic constraints, are invaluable in data management. They facilitate conceptual design and enable checking of data consistency. They also play an important role in permitting semantic query optimization, that is, optimization and processing strategies that are often highly effective, but only correct for data conforming to a given schema. While the use of metadata is well-established in relation and XML databases, the same is not true for data streams.
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