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To support real-time multimedia communication, fourth-generation mobile communications will require a high-bit-rate transmission system with high utilization of the frequency spectrum in very rich multipath channels. Systems capable of fulfilling this requirement, with features such as Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) and Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO), have been studied extensively. Furthermore, the use of M-ary Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (M-ary QAM) with coherent detection helps to meet the transmission requirements. Such systems overcome frequency selective fading by using a narrowband multiple-carrier signal called a sub-channel. Those systems use sophisticated and refined techniques and several of those techniques are usually combined in one system.
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