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In this paper, the authors propose three Deflection-Routing-based Multicast (DRM) schemes for a buffer-less NoC. The DRM scheme without packets replication (DRM noPR) sends multicast packet through a nondeterministic path. The DRM schemes with adaptive packets replication (DRM PR src and DRM PR all) replicate multicast packets at the source or intermediate node according to the destination position and the state of output ports to reduce the average multicast latency. They also provide fault-tolerant supporting in these schemes through a reinforcement-learning based method to reconfigure the routing table to tolerate permanent faulty links in the network.
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