Synchronization and Cell Search Algorithms in 3GPP Long Term Evolution Systems (FDD Mode)
In this paper initial downlink synchronization (sync) and cell identification algorithms for the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Long Term Evolution (LTE) systems are presented. The frequency division duplex (FDD) mode is used in the downlink radio frame structure. A user equipment digital receiver architecture is proposed. The orthogonality of signals in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) may be lost due to some impairments such as frequency, time, and phase offsets. Therefore, major parts of this research are involved in restoring the orthogonality at the User Equipment (UE) by using some techniques to estimate the sync parameters, and to detect cell identity among candidate cells based on sync signals.