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In this paper, the authors propose a general synchronization scheme and a common model for both frequency and time offsets in the cascaded distributed MIMO communications. By cascaded, they mean that cluster A transmits to cluster B, and cluster B transmits to cluster C, and so on, yet there is never any coordination between nodes within a cluster; for example, there is no signal redistributed within a cluster. The proposed scheme includes two parts: distributed pre-synchronization of the MIMO transmitters and the weighted combination at a receiver of estimates associated with different relays.
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