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Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), an important transport layer communication protocol, is typically tuned to perform well in traditional wired networks, where Bit Error Rate (BER) is low and congestion is the primary cause of packet loss. The emergence of various mobile access networks has prompted researchers to look for suitable modifications to TCP so as to make it survive in the wireless era as well. This paper provides both, the problems that arise when TCP is used over wireless links and an in-depth survey of various TCP enhancements which are specifically targeted for these problems. The problem is first characterized by the behaviour of wireless links and the aspects of TCP operation that affect performance.
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