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Since the appearance of downsized and simplified TCP/IP stacks, single nodes from Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have become directly accessible from the Internet with commonly used networking tools and applications (e.g., Telnet or SMTP). However, TCP has been shown to perform poorly in wireless networks, especially across multiple wireless hops. This paper examines TCP performance optimizations based on distributed caching and local retransmission strategies of intermediate nodes in a TCP connection, and proposes extended techniques to these strategies. The paper studies the impact of different radio duty-cycling MAC protocols on the end-to-end TCP performance when using the proposed TCP optimization strategies in an extensive experimental evaluation on a real-world sensor network testbed.
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