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An increasing number of modern real-time systems and the nowadays ubiquitous multicore architectures demand the application of programming techniques for reliable and efficient concurrent synchronization. Some recently developed Compare-And-Swap (CAS) based non-blocking techniques hold the promise of delivering practical and safer concurrency. The ABA2 problem is a fundamental problem to many CAS-based designs. Its significance has increased with the suggested use of CAS as a core atomic primitive for the implementation of portable lock-free algorithms. The ABA problem's occurrence is due to the intricate and complex interactions of the application's concurrent operations and, if not remedied, ABA can significantly corrupt the semantics of a non-blocking algorithm.
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