The ContikiMAC Radio Duty Cycling Protocol
Low-power wireless devices must keep their radio transceivers off as much as possible to reach a low power consumption, but must wake up often enough to be able to receive communication from their neighbors. This paper describes the ContikiMAC radio duty cycling mechanism, the default radio duty cycling mechanism in Contiki 2.5, which uses a power efficient wake-up mechanism with a set of timing constraints to allow device to keep their transceivers off. With ContikiMAC, nodes can participate in network communication yet keep their radios turned off for roughly 99% of the time. This paper describes the ContikiMAC mechanism, measures the energy consumption of individual ContikiMAC operations, and evaluates the efficiency of the fast sleep and phase-lock optimizations.