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As an economically-developing country spanning two continents and having a history grounded in both the West and the East, Turkey represents a dramatic case of a "Torn" (Huntington 1993) or divided country, possessing several types of political and social cleavages. Borrowing terminology and insights from the seminal work on social cleavages of Lipset and Rokkan (1967), Serif Mardin (1973) argued over three decades ago that political life in Turkey was defined by the differences between a more modern, centralizing, secularized, and Western-oriented "Center" and a poorer, more traditional and Islamic "Periphery."
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