The Evolution to 4G Cellular Systems: LTE-Advanced
This paper provides an in-depth view on the technologies being considered for Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-Advanced). First, the evolution from Third Generation (3G) to Fourth Generation (4G) is described in terms of performance requirements and main characteristics. The new network architecture developed by the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), which supports the integration of current and future radio access technologies, is highlighted. Then, the main technologies for LTE-Advanced are explained, together with possible improvements, their associated challenges, and some approaches that have been considered to tackle those challenges.