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Ff is a family of lightweight and privacy-preserving authentication protocols for RFID-systems. Contrary to related work, Ff offers user-adjustable authentication and privacy without requiring a complex cryptographic hash function or non-volatile state on the tag. At the core of Ff is a lightweight keyed hash function that allows the reader to identify and authenticate a tag by iterative elimination of the entries in its database through a few rounds of verifications. The security of Ff is analyzed against algebraic and statistical attacks, attacks based on the LPN technique, and also with respect to recently highlighted SAT-solving approaches. The feasibility of the scheme is discussed through an estimation of the hardware cost and of the protocol performance based on a specific instance of the Ff family.
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