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The authors investigate the relationship between interstate highways and highway Vehicle Kilometers Traveled (VKT) in US cities. They find that VKT increases proportionately to highways and identify three important sources for this extra VKT: an increase in driving by current residents; an increase in transportation intensive production activity; and an inflow of new residents. The provision of public transportation has no impact on VKT. They also estimate the aggregate city level demand for VKT and find it to be very elastic. They conclude that an increased provision of roads or public transit is unlikely to relieve congestion.
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