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The failure of neoliberalism in Africa led to its revinvention through the use of a variety of concepts such as governance and social capital over the last number of decades (Carmody, 2007). This failure of market reforms was blamed on a lack of social capital or poor governance, while the economic basis of the policies themselves were not questioned, at least by the development institutions implementing them. More recently Africa's physical geography has been used by development institutions, such as the World Bank to "Explain" the continent's underdevelopment (Carmody, 2011).
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