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To rank the 110 countries in the International Innovation Index and compare the innovation status of the 50 U.S. states, the authors analyzed the impact on innovation performance of inputs such as government and fiscal policy, education policy, and the innovation environment. These inputs drive performance by either supporting or hindering the efforts of companies and industries. To evaluate innovation performance, they measured outputs such as patents, technology transfer, and other R&D results; business performance, such as labor productivity and total shareholder returns; and the broader public impact of innovation on business migration and economic growth.
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