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Scaling of CMOS feature size has long been a source of dramatic performance gains. However, the reduction in voltage levels has not been able to match this rate of scaling, leading to increasing operating temperatures and current densities. Given that most wearout mechanisms that plague semiconductor devices are highly dependent on these parameters, significantly higher failure rates are projected for future technology generations. Consequently, high reliability and fault tolerance, which have traditionally been subjects of interest for high-end server markets, are now getting emphasis in the mainstream desktop and embedded systems space.
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