The Underground Economy of Spam: A Botmaster's Perspective of Coordinating Large-Scale Spam Campaigns
Spam accounts for a large portion of the email exchange on the Internet. In addition to being a nuisance and a waste of costly resources, spam is used as a delivery mechanism for many criminal scams and large-scale compromises. Most of this spam is sent using botnets, which are often rented for a fee to criminal organizations. Even though there has been a considerable corpus of research focused on combating spam and analyzing spam-related botnets, most of these efforts have had a limited view of the entire spamming process.