Three-Dimensional Underwater Target Tracking With Acoustic Sensor Networks
Using traditional sonar arrays may be difficult and impractical in some mission-critical scenarios, because they should be mounted on or towed by a ship or a submersible. Alternatively, UnderWater Acoustic Sensor Networks (UW-ASNs) offer a promising solution approach. In this paper, a target-tracking algorithm for UW-ASNs, i.e., 3-D Underwater Target tracking (3DUT), is presented. The objective of 3DUT is to collaboratively accomplish accurate tracking of underwater targets with minimum energy expenditure. Based on the time of arrival of the echoes from the target after transmitting acoustic pulses from the sensors, the ranges of the nodes to the target are determined, and trilateration is used to obtain the location of the target.