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A new 3-D urban electromagnetic wave propagation model is presented. It provides fast 3-D deterministic predictions in urban radio configurations and over large areas. The various techniques to make it suitable to the network planning and optimization of large wireless networks are described. The resulting radio propagation maps exhibit seamless coverage between the various environments (dense urban, urban, and suburban). The model efficiently addresses all types of outdoor transmitter configurations (macrocells, minicells, microcells, and picocells) and all types of receiver locations (at ground level, over the rooftop, and at high building floors). It predicts the field strength as well as the dominant specular contributions of the impulse responses to build ray spectra (including delays and angles).
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