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By integrating Wireless Wide Area Networks (WWANs) and Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs), mobile hotspot technologies enable seamless Internet multimedia services to users on-board a vehicle. In this paper, the authors investigate the performance of TCP-Friendly Rate Control (TFRC) protocol supporting multimedia services in mobile hotspots. To quantify the throughput of TFRC flows in mobile hotspots, they first develop discrete-time queuing models for the WWAN link and the WLAN link. They, then derive the steady state TFRC throughput using an iterative algorithm. Analytical and extensive simulation results reveal how the end-to-end TFRC throughput is affected by the number of users in a mobile hotspot, the vehicle velocity, the WWAN/WLAN link bandwidth, the retransmission limit, and the buffer size.
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