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The last two decades have witnessed an exciting advanced research field that stems from non-classical atomic theory, the quantum mechanics. This paper promises an interesting applicability in computation known as quantum computation, and also in secure data communications, known as quantum cryptography, quantum cryptography capitalizes on the inherent random polarization state of single photons, which are associated with binary logic values. Because the polarization state of a photon is not reproducible by an eavesdropper between the source and the destination polarized photons are used with an intelligent algorithm to disseminate the cryptographic key with high security from the source to the destination, a process known as quantum key distribution.
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