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The awareness of boundaries in wireless sensor networks has many benefits. The identification of boundaries is especially challenging since typical wireless sensor networks consist of low-capability nodes that are unaware of their geographic location. In this paper, the authors propose a simple, efficient algorithm to detect nodes that are near the boundary of the sensor field as well as near the boundaries of holes. The algorithm relies purely on the connectivity information of the underlying communication graph and does not require any information on the location of nodes. They introduce the 2-neighbor graph concept, and then make use of it to identify nodes near boundaries. The results of the experiment show that the algorithm carries out the task of topological boundary detection correctly and efficiently.
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