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In this paper, a two-tiered Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) where nodes are divided into clusters and nodes forward data to base stations through cluster heads is considered. To maximize the network lifetime, two energy efficient approaches are investigated. The authors first propose an approach that optimally locates the base stations within the network so that the distance between each cluster head and its closest base station is decreased. Then, a routing technique is developed to arrange the communication between clusters heads toward the base stations in order to guaranty that the gathered information effectively and efficiently reach the application.
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