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Due to unpredictable peer churns (joins, leaves and failures), it is challenging to offer video continuity in Peer-to-Peer (P2P) live streaming. In this paper, the authors study a push-based P2P network formed by unreliable nodes (i.e., nodes which may churn at any time). To achieve high stream continuity, the video is encoded into k MDC (Multiple-Description Coded) streams and t FEC (Forward Error Correction) streams. To achieve low delay and reduce error correlation between streams, the k +t streams are pushed to the nodes in parent-disjoint spanning trees. The issue is how to construct these trees minimizing the worst-case node delay. They address the optimization of the spanning trees through problem analysis and algorithmic design.
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