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This paper revisits a classic question: how can a machine specify a computation to another one and then, without executing the computation, check that the other machine carried it out correctly? The applications of such a primitive include cloud computing (a computationally limited device offloads processing to the cloud but does not assume the cloud's correctness); volunteer computing (some 30 projects use the BOINC software platform to leverage volunteers' spare cycles, but some "Volunteers" return wrong answers); and high-assurance computing (a machine may be remotely deployed and subject to physical tampering).
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