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Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks (WSANs) are service-oriented environments, where sensors request actors to service their detected events and actors move to deliver the desired services. Because of their openness and unattended nature, these networks are vulnerable to various security attacks. In this paper, the authors address service fraud attacks for the first time, whose objective is to stop the normal use of actor services by fake service requests and/or delivery. To mitigate this type of security attacks, they propose a novel cooperative authentication scheme. With the scheme, a sensor's service request is cooperatively authenticated by the sensors that witness the same event, and an actor's service delivery effort is cooperatively authenticated by the sensors that witness the actor's behavior.
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