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This paper presents a general analysis for the performance of WLAN location determination systems. In particular, the authors present an analytical method for calculating the average distance error and probability of error of WLAN location determination systems. These expressions are obtained with no assumptions regarding the distribution of signal strength or the probability of the user being at a specific location, which is usually taken to be a uniform distribution over all the possible locations in current WLAN location determination systems. They use these expressions to find the optimal strategy to estimate the user location and to prove formally that probabilistic techniques give more accuracy than deterministic techniques, which has been taken for granted without proof for a long time.
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