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Demand Response (DR) is a technique for balancing electricity supply and demand by regulating power consumption instead of generation. DR is a key technology for emerging smart electric grids that aim to increase grid efficiency, while incorporating significant amounts of clean renewable energy sources. In today's grid, DR is a rare event that only occurs when actual peak demands exceed the expected peak. In contrast, smart electric grids incentivize consumers to engage in continuous policy-driven DR to optimize power consumption for time-of-use pricing and deal with power variations from non-dispatchable renewable energy sources. While data centers are well-positioned to exploit DR, applications must cope with significant, frequent, and unpredictable changes in available power by regulating their energy footprint.
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