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This paper is intended to study the design principle of a low-latency Byzantine state machine protocol, called RAM, for this system model. The aim of this report is to reflect on the difficulty of building state machines in a multi-site setting, which lacks trusts between two sites, but not within a site. State machine replication is a basis for constructing highly available distributed services. RAM mentioned in the paper makes careful use of Attested append-only Memory (A2M) and also utilizes a revolving organizer plan to further lessen latency. This report investigates Byzantine fault tolerance (BFT) state machinery replication in Mutually Suspicious Domains (MSD) with the aim to reach low latency level for wide area networks. This paper discusses that RAM is a practical protocol and the properties of RAM can lead to a low-latency protocol in multi-site environments. The result of investigation of this protocol is the design of RAM that leverages MSD model, a rotating leader scheme, and attested append-only memory to reduce latency in multi-site environment. RAM is a low-latency replicated state machine protocol for wide-area networks consisting of equally suspicious domains. This paper intends to provide a wide-area state machine replication protocols for crash failures. Higher throughput can be obtained at the cost of one extra wide-area delay by broadcasting and relying authentic PROPOSE and SKIP messages. The use of A2M reflects the manufacturing exchange in favor of lower latency over higher throughput.
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