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P2P live streaming systems are developed in two major approaches: tree-push versus mesh-pull. The hybrid push-pull streaming, as an emerging and promising approach, offers a good tradeoff between traffic overhead and system throughput. In this paper, the authors demonstrate that video redundancy is a large contributor of the traffic overhead in push-pull systems. To reduce the traffic overhead, they propose simple but effective sub-stream scheduling and re-scheduling mechanisms, implemented in a push-pull streaming prototype called Low-redundancy Streaming (LStreaming). To demonstrate its effectiveness on reducing the traffic overhead, they conduct both simulation and prototype experiments and compare the proposed LStreaming with random mesh-pull and GridMedia.
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