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Distributed Real-time and Embedded (DRE) systems often require support for multiple simultaneous Quality of Service (QoS) properties, such as real-timeliness and fault tolerance, that operate within resource constrained environments. These resource constraints motivate the need for a lightweight middleware infrastructure, while the need for simultaneous QoS properties require the middleware to provide fault tolerance capabilities that respect time-critical needs of DRE systems. Conventional middleware solutions, such as Fault-tolerant CORBA (FT- CORBA) and Continuous Availability API for J2EE, have limited utility for DRE systems because they are heavyweight (e.g., the complexity of their feature-rich fault tolerance capabilities consumes excessive runtime resources), yet incomplete (e.g., they lack mechanisms that enable fault tolerance while maintaining real-time predictability).
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