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Outsourced computation services should ideally only charge customers for the resources used by their applications. Unfortunately, no verifiable basis for service providers and customers to reconcile resource accounting exists today. This leads to undesirable outcomes for both providers and consumers - providers cannot prove to customers that they really devoted the resources charged, and customers cannot verify that their invoice maps to their actual usage. As a result, many practical and theoretical attacks exist, aimed at charging customers for resources that their applications did not consume. Moreover, providers cannot charge consumers precisely, which causes them to bear the cost of unaccounted resources or pass these costs inefficiently to their customers.
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