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Base Stations (BSes) in the 3G cellular network are not energy proportional with respect to their carried traffic load. The authors' measurements show that 3G traffic exhibits high fluctuations both in time and over space, thus incurring energy waste. In this paper, they propose a profile-based approach to green cellular infrastructure. They profile BS traffic and approximate network-wide energy proportionality using non-load-adaptive BSes. The instrument is to leverage temporal-spatial traffic diversity and node deployment heterogeneity, and power off under-utilized BSes under light traffic. Their evaluation on four regional 3G networks shows that this simple scheme yields up to 53% energy savings in a dense large city and 23% in a sparse, mid-sized city.
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