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Traffic density in wireless networks is time- and space-varying as users move from one area to another. For example, the majority of traffic stays in residential areas in the early morning and late evening; but moves to business or commercial areas in daytime. Therefore, it is challenging to efficiently locate base stations during network planning stage, due to the time-varying traffic distribution. Base stations vary from highly congested to seldom utilized depending on time. However, measurement studies show that the movement of the traffic density is highly predictable, and the traffic always travel along similar routes among different parts in a city or town during one day or over a week.
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