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In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), data gathering using mobile sinks typically incurs constant propagation of sink location indication messages to guide the direction of data reporting. Such behavior is undesirable, especially when the sensor network scale increases, as frequent message flooding will cause serious congestion in network communication and significantly impair the sensor network lifetime. In this paper, the authors propose a proactive data reporting protocol, SinkTrail, which achieves energy efficient data forwarding to multiple mobile sinks, and effectively reduces the number of sink location broadcasting messages.
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