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Modern information management applications often require integrating data from a variety of data sources, some of which may copy or buy data from other sources. When these data sources model a dynamically changing world (e.g., people's contact information changes over time, restaurants open and go out of business), sources often provide out-of-date data. Errors can also creep into data when sources are updated often. Given out-of-date and erroneous data provided by different, possibly dependent, sources, it is challenging for data integration systems to provide the true values. Straightforward ways to resolve such inconsistencies (e.g., voting) may lead to noisy results, often with detrimental consequences.
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