Date Added: Nov 2011
Time synchronization plays a critical role in distributed network systems. In this paper, the authors investigate the time synchronization problem in the context of UnderWater Sensor Networks (UWSNs). They propose a pairwise, cross-layer, time synchronization scheme for mobile underwater sensor networks, called TSMU. Facilitated by the Kalman Filter, the proposed method greatly improves the dynamic propagation delay estimation by exploring the Doppler effect. Simulation results show that TSMU outperforms existing synchronization schemes in both accuracy and energy efficiency.