Tussle in Routing: Who Determines Internet Paths?
End-users today have little control over how traffic reaches the intended destination. Most end-users residing in edge networks just rely on their upstream provider to deliver outgoing traffic to the destination networks. Even Multihoming provides only limited control in the form of choosing the first hop AS among limited choices for outgoing packets. Such decision is often made based on perceived performance and network cost to select the upstream provider to use for traffic for a given destination. Similarly, for incoming traffic, end-users today do not have much control in terms of the paths traversed by packets.