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Cloud computing promises a more cost effective enabling technology to outsource storage and computations. Existing approaches for secure outsourcing of data and arbitrary computations are either based on a single tamper-proof hardware, or based on recently proposed fully homomorphic encryption. The hardware based solutions are not scaleable, and fully homomorphic encryption is currently only of theoretical interest and very inefficient. In this paper, the authors propose an architecture for secure outsourcing of data and arbitrary computations to an untrusted commodity cloud. In the approach, the user communicates with a trusted cloud (either a private cloud or built from multiple secure hardware modules) which encrypts and verifies the data stored and operations performed in the untrusted commodity cloud.
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