Typestate-Oriented Programming

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Executive Summary

Objects model the world, and state is fundamental to a faithful modeling. Engineers use state machines to understand and reason about state transitions, but programming languages provide little support for reasoning about or implementing these state machines, causing software defects and lost productivity when objects are misused. The authors propose Typestate-Oriented Programming as a natural extension to the object paradigm, where objects are modeled not just in terms of classes, but in terms of changing states.

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