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This paper investigate the origin and components of network server latency under various loads and find that filesystem-related kernel queues exhibit head-of-line blocking, which leads to bursty behavior in event delivery and process scheduling. In turn, these problems degrade the existing fairness and scheduling policies in the operating system, causing requests that could have been served in memory, with low latency, to unnecessarily wait on disk-bound requests. While this batching behavior only mildly affects throughput, it severely degrades latency.
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