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In low-duty-cycle networks, sensors stay dormant most of time to save their energy and wake up based on their needs. Such a technique, while prolonging the network lifetime, sets excessive challenges for efficient flooding within the network. Tailored for obtaining short delay in low-duty-cycle networks, recently proposed flooding protocols have achieved some initial success. Many fundamental problems of flooding in low-duty-cycle networks, however, are still not well understood. In this paper, the authors thoroughly investigate how the flooding behaviors are fundamentally affected from theory to practice in a low-duty-cycle sensor network. They study how practical factors like duty cycle length and link loss affect the flooding delay.
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