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Confidentiality and integrity of sensitive information stored in smart cards and secure microcontrollers is a matter of great importance to both developers and chip manufacturers. Therefore, such sensitive data as passwords, encryption keys and confidential information are often stored in encrypted form and decrypted only when necessary. That might prevent invasive attacks applied directly to the on-chip storage memory widely exploited in the late 1990s. However, as encryption/decryption is usually done by the CPU, cryptographic keys and unencrypted data appear in data RAM, CPU registers and Cache memory.
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