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A huge body of work utilized signal strength of short range signal (such as WiFi, Bluetooth, ultra sound or Infrared) to build a radio map for indoor localization, by deploying a great number of beacon nodes in the building. The drawback of such an infrastructure-based approach is that the deployment and calibration of the system is costly and labor-intensive. To overcome that, some prior studies proposed the use of Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR) for indoor localization. The PDR system does not require building a beacon-based infrastructure, in which a small number of sensors are put on the pedestrian. These sensors (such as G-sensor and Gyro) are used to estimate the distance and direction that the user traveled.
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