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The Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR) system is a self-contained technique that has been proposed for indoor localization. It only requires a few sensors to be put on the user and can be used for any building without pre-installed beacon nodes or pre-built RF maps/propagation models based on surveys of the environment. Most PDR systems use inertial sensors (such as accelerometer, gyroscope, and digital compass) to measure step count/length and heading direction. Some of the prior work also combined other sensors, e.g., stereo vision, ultrasound, RFID, and laser range scanner, to calibrate their results.
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