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Ad hoc networks are wireless networks where mobile nodes relay on each other to keep network connected without help of pre-existing infrastructure or centralized control. These are characterized by dynamic topology caused by node mobility, multihop wireless connectivity and limited bandwidth, and potentially large scale makes routing as challenging problem in these systems. The key challenges in the design of ad hoc networks is the development of dynamic routing protocols that can efficiently find routes between two communicating nodes. To address these various routing protocols are existing like on-demand routing, geographical routing. These protocols require availability of location information and suffer from poor routing performance and severe dead end problems.
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