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Free Form Deformation (FFD) is a well established technique for deforming arbitrary object shapes in space. Although more recent deformation techniques have been introduced, amongst them skeleton-based deformation and cage based deformation, the simple and versatile nature of FFD is a strong advantage, and justifies its presence in nowadays leading commercial geometric modeling and animation software systems. Since its introduction in the late 80's, many improvements have been proposed to the FFD paradigm, including control lattices of arbitrary topology, direct shape manipulation and GPU implementation. Several authors have addressed the problem of volume preserving FFD. These previous approaches either make use of expensive non-linear optimization techniques, or resort to first order approximation suitable only for small-scale deformations.
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